As Taiwan's most worshipped deity, the birthday of the goddess Mazu is a busy and important period in Taiwanese religion. She is believed to have been born on the 23rd day of the third month in the Chinese lunar calendar, which corresponds to a different date each year in the western calendar but is around the end of April or start of May. Celebrations for her birthday are numerous and vary hugely in scale, and are spread around a month or two before and after this date. The three largest and best known of these ceremonies are from the towns of Dajia (Da Jia, 大甲), Beigang (Peigang, 北港) and Baishatun (Bai Sha Tun, 白沙屯).
The most famous Mazu pilgrimage, and the one with the largest number of devotees, starts at Zhen Lan temple (鎮瀾宮) in Dajia, Taichung county, in the third month of the lunar calendar. The ceremony starts on a Friday evening, because it has become a major arts and performance festival too, but the week and time is divined from Mazu's wishes by casting moon blocks. The beginning of the pilgrimage involves various performance troupes such as lion dancers entertaining the goddess and huge crowd outside the temple, whilst inside water is blessed under the palanquin carrying the image of Mazu and given out to devotees. Finally, Mazu makes her way out of the temple, surrounded by many thousands of worshippers, with fireworks exploding above. After leaving DaJia, the parade passes over the long bridge leading to Taichung city, from which a further huge fireworks display can be seen, and the 9 day tour begins.
From DaJia, the Mazu palanquin is carried on foot a total of 330 kilometres, before returning to Zhen Lan temple. The halfway point, and furthest South on the pilgramage, is the Mazu temple of Feng Tian in Xingang, Chiayi county, not far from Beigang, the site of another major Mazu festival.
Due to the length of the journey, all completed on foot, no troupes accompany the palanquin for the entire pilgrimage. However, along the way local temples will send troupes and their own Mazu statues inside palanquins to join DaJia's Mazu for parts of her trip - always with DaJia's Mazu at the rear of the parade, as befitting her high status. Initially, Mazu did not go through the city of Changhua as part of her route, and local gangs would often try to attack the parade and steal the palanquin to take it to their temple or area, believing it to bring them luck. As a result, the organisers asked Mazu if they should avoid the city, drive through it, or walk through, and she directed them to do the latter. Even now though, Changhua is notorious for gangs and groups of devotees fighting to hijack the parade and take the palanquin to their parts of the city, and the palanquin is usually carried through the city by police to try to deter this.
Most palanquins in temple tours are carried by designated temple officials or groups, wearing the temple uniform. However, while the DaJia Mazu procession does have such uniformed people, on many parts of the tour (particularly the more rural), anyone can be allowed to help carry her.